The Wildlife Professionals of Greensboro, North Carolina
Bat Removal |Bat Control|Bats in the Attic Services in Greensboro, NC
“Chiroptera” from Ernst Haeckel’s Kunstformen der Natur, 1904 (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
Bats are throughout the United States and are becoming an ever increasing nuisance wildlife that intrudes into more and more homes and businesses each year. Bat removal and bat control issues in Greensboro has grown to such an conflict and issue that ir has spawned a whole new industry. Bat Control and bat removal professionals in North Carolina must pass a classroom training course and pass a written test before they can remove wildlife such as bats from your attic or your business. Bats are a protected animal and must be treated as such.
Call Harley Carnell Licensed Nuisance Wildlife Removal Professional in Greensboro, Winston- Salem, Burlington, High Point, Lexington, Archdale, Thomasville, Kernersville and though out the Piedmont Triad Area!
Below are facts that can be found on http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bat
Classification and evolution
Golden crowned fruit bat (Acerodon jubatus) Released as GFDL by LDC,Inc. Foundation. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
Bats are mammals. In many languages, the word for “bat” is cognate with the word for “mouse”: for example, chauve-souris (“bald-mouse”) in French, murciélago (“blind mouse”) in Spanish, летучая мышь (“flying mouse”) in Russian, slijepi miš (“blind mouse”) in Bosnian, nahkhiir (“leather mouse”) in Estonian, vlermuis (winged mouse) in Afrikaans, from the Dutch word vleermuis. An older English name for bats is flittermice, which matches their name in other Germanic languages (for example German Fledermaus and Swedish fladdermus). Bats were formerly thought to be most closely related to flying lemurs, treeshrews, and primates, but recent molecular cladistics research indicates they actually belong to Laurasiatheria, a diverse group also containing Carnivora and Artiodactyla.
The two traditionally recognized suborders of bats are:
Not all megabats are larger than microbats. The major distinctions between the two suborders are:
- Microbats use echolocation; with the exception of Rousettus and its relatives, megabats do not.
- Microbats lack the claw at the second toe of the forelimb.
- The ears of microbats do not close to form a ring; the edges are separated from each other at the base of the ear.
- Microbats lack underfur; they are either naked or have guard hairs.
Megabats eat fruit, nectar, or pollen, while most microbats eat insects; others may feed on the blood of animals, small mammals, fish, frogs, fruit, pollen, or nectar. Megabats have well-developed visual cortices and show good visual acuity, while microbats rely on echolocation for navigation and finding prey.
The phylogenetic relationships of the different groups of bats have
been the subject of much debate. The traditional subdivision between
Megachiroptera and Microchiroptera reflects the view that these groups
of bats have evolved independently of each other for a long time, from a
already capable of flight. This hypothesis recognized differences
between microbats and megabats and acknowledged that flight has only
evolved once in mammals. Most molecular biological evidence supports the
view that bats form a single or monophyletic group.
Greensboro NC Bat Removal
Researchers have proposed alternate views of chiropteran phylogeny and classification, but more research is needed.
In the 1980s, a hypothesis based on morphological evidence was offered that stated the Megachiroptera evolved flight separately from the Microchiroptera. The so-called flying primates theory proposes that, when adaptations to flight are removed, the Megachiroptera are allied to primates
by anatomical features not shared with Microchiroptera. One example is
that the brains of megabats show a number of advanced characteristics
that link them to primates. Although recent genetic studies strongly
support the monophyly of bats, debate continues as to the meaning of available genetic and morphological evidence.
Genetic evidence indicates megabats originated during the early Eocene and should be placed within the four major lines of microbats.
Consequently, two new suborders based on molecular data have been proposed. The new suborder Yinpterochiroptera includes the Pteropodidae or megabat family, as well as the Rhinolophidae, Hipposideridae, Craseonycteridae, Megadermatidae, and Rhinopomatidae families The new suborder Yangochiroptera
includes all the remaining families of bats (all of which use laryngeal
echolocation). These two new suborders are strongly supported by
statistical tests. Teeling (2005) found 100% bootstrap support in all
maximum likelihood analyses for the division of Chiroptera into these
two modified suborders. This conclusion is further supported by a
15-base-pair deletion in BRCA1 and a seven-base-pair deletion in PLCB4
present in all Yangochiroptera and absent in all Yinpterochiroptera.
The chiropteran phylogeny based on molecular evidence is controversial
because microbat paraphyly implies one of two seemingly unlikely
hypotheses occurred. The first suggests laryngeal echolocation evolved
twice in Chiroptera, once in Yangochiroptera and once in the
rhinolophoids. Bats in the attic in Greensboro
The second proposes laryngeal echolocation had a single origin in
Chiroptera, was subsequently lost in the family Pteropodidae (all
megabats), and later evolved as a system of tongue-clicking in the genus
Analyses of the sequence of the “vocalization” gene, FoxP2 was
inconclusive as to whether laryngeal echolocation was secondarily lost
in the pteropodids or independently gained in the echolocating lineages. However, analyses of the “hearing” gene, Prestin seemed to favor the independent gain in echolocating species rather than a secondary loss in the pteropodids.
In addition to Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera, the names
Pteropodiformes and Vespertilioniformes have also been proposed for
these suborders. Bat control in Greensboro, NC
Under this new proposed nomenclature, the suborder Pteropodiformes
includes all extant bat families more closely related to the genus Pteropus than the genus Vespertilio, while the suborder Vespertilioniformes includes all extant bat families more closely related to the genus Vespertilio than to the genus Pteropus.
Little fossil evidence is available to help map the evolution of bats, since their small, delicate skeletons do not fossilize very well. However, a Late Cretaceous
tooth from South America resembles that of an early microchiropteran
bat. Most of the oldest known, definitely identified bat fossils were
already very similar to modern microbats. These fossils, Icaronycteris, Archaeonycteris, Palaeochiropteryx and Hassianycteris, are from the early Eocene period, 52.5 million years ago. Archaeopteropus, formerly classified as the earliest known megachiropteran, is now classified as a microchiropteran.
Bats were formerly grouped in the superorder Archonta along with the treeshrews (Scandentia), colugos (Dermoptera), and the primates,
because of the apparent similarities between Megachiroptera and such
mammals. Genetic studies have now placed bats in the superorder Laurasiatheria, along with carnivorans, pangolins, odd-toed ungulates, even-toed ungulates, and cetaceans.
Flight has enabled bats to become one of the most widely distributed groups of mammals. Apart from the Arctic, the Antarctic and a few isolated oceanic islands, bats exist all over the world.
Bats are found in almost every habitat available on Earth. Different
species select different habitats during different seasons, ranging from
seasides to mountains and even deserts, but bat habitats have two basic
requirements: roosts, where they spend the day or hibernate, and places
for foraging. Bat roosts can be found in hollows, crevices, foliage,
and even human-made structures, and include “tents” the bats construct
by biting leaves.
The United States is home to an estimated 45 to 48 species of bats. The three most common species are Myotis lucifugus (little brown bat), Eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat), and Tadarida brasiliensis Greensboro bat in my house.
(Mexican free-tailed bat). The little and the big brown bats are common
throughout the northern two-thirds of the country, while the Mexican
free-tailed bat is the most common species in the southwest.
Bat echolocation is a perceptual system where ultrasonic sounds are
emitted specifically to produce echoes. By comparing the outgoing pulse
with the returning echoes, the brain and auditory nervous system can
produce detailed images of the bat’s surroundings. This allows bats to
detect, localize, and even classify their prey in complete darkness. At
130 decibels in intensity, bat calls are some of the most intense,
airborne animal sounds.
To clearly distinguish returning information, bats must be able to
separate their calls from the echoes they receive. Microbats use two
- Low duty cycle echolocation: Bats can separate their calls and
returning echos by time. Bats that use this approach time their short
calls to finish before echoes return. This is important because these
bats contract their middle ear muscles when emitting a call, so they can
avoid deafening themselves. The time interval between call and echo
allows them to relax these muscles, so they can clearly hear the
returning echo. The delay of the returning echos provides the bat with the ability to estimate range to their prey.
- High duty cycle echolocation: Bats emit a continuous call and
separate pulse and echo in frequency. The ears of these bats are sharply
tuned to a specific frequency range. They emit calls outside of this
range to avoid self-deafening. They then receive echoes back at the
finely tuned frequency range by taking advantage of the Doppler shift
of their motion in flight. The Doppler shift of the returning echos
yields information relating to the motion and location of the bat’s
prey. These bats must deal with changes in the Doppler shift due to
changes in their flight speed. They have adapted to change their pulse
emission frequency in relation to their flight speed so echoes still
return in the optimal hearing range.
The new Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera classification of
bats, supported by molecular evidence, suggests two possibilities for
the evolution of echolocation. It may have been gained once in a common
ancestor of all bats and was then subsequently lost in the Old World
fruit bats, only to be regained in the horseshoe bats, or echolocation
evolved independently in both the Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera
Two groups of moths exploit a bat sense to echolocate: tiger moths produce ultrasonic signals to warn the bats they (the moths) are chemically protected or aposematic. This was once thought to be the biological equivalent of “radar jamming“, but this theory has yet to be confirmed. The moths Noctuidae have a hearing organ called a tympanum,
which responds to an incoming bat signal by causing the moth’s flight
muscles to twitch erratically, sending the moth into random evasive
maneuvers. Bat removal