Raccoon Removal Greensboro, NC 336-240-9317 Raccoon Control|Raccoon Clean up in Attic|Raccoons in the attic

The Wildlife Professionals of Greensboro, North Carolina

336-240-9317

Raccoon Removal|Raccoon Control|Raccoons in the attic|Raccoon poop clean up

 

English: Raccoon - Jonathan Dickinson State Park.

English: Raccoon – Jonathan Dickinson State Park. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Raccoons are fascinating creatures and are comical to watch. They are cute and adorable. Raccoons have been portrayed as whimsical and fuzzy cute fun animals. the truth is that raccoons can be aggressive and dangerous and should never be handled with out the proper knowledge or training.

Once a raccoon has decided your Greensboro North Carolina home, Church or business is a great place to make a home they will typically start to raise their families there. Raccoon Removal will be needed. Raccoons are known carriers of distemper and a round worm that can potentially kill a grown man, so it is extremely important to use trained professionals to trap and remove your raccoon whether you have a raccoon in the attic or a raccoon in the chimney.

Harley Carnell of The Wildlife Professionals of Greensboro NC can effectively remove the raccoon humanely and perform an exclusion to prevent future occurrences.  Once the repair work is finished and all the raccoons have been removed Harley can remove all feces impacted insulation and re install new. As a Greensboro Attic Restoration Specialist Harley can handle all your raccoon removal conflicts

Below are facts from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raccoon

 

Raccoon

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Raccoon
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Procyonidae
Genus: Procyon
Species: P. lotor
Binomial name
Procyon lotor

(Linnaeus, 1758)

Native range in red, introduced range in blue
Synonyms
Ursus lotor Linnaeus, 1758

The raccoon (Listeni/ræˈkn/, Procyon lotor), sometimes spelled racoon,[2] also known as the common raccoon,[3] North American raccoon,[4] northern raccoon[5] and colloquially as coon,[6] is a medium-sized mammal native to North America. The raccoon is the largest of the procyonid family,
having a body length of 40 to 70 cm (16 to 28 in) and a body weight of
3.5 to 9 kg (8 to 20 lb). Its grayish coat mostly consists of dense underfur which insulates against cold weather. Two of the raccoon’s most distinctive features are its extremely dexterous front paws and its facial mask, which are themes in the mythology of several Native American tribes. Raccoons are noted for their intelligence, with studies showing that they are able to remember the solution to tasks for up to three years. The diet of the omnivorous raccoon, which is usually nocturnal, consists of about 40% invertebrates, 33% plant foods, and 27% vertebrates. High point NC bat removal

The original habitats of the raccoon are deciduous and mixed forests, but due to their adaptability they have extended their range to mountainous areas, coastal marshes, and urban areas, where some homeowners consider them to be pests. As a result of escapes and deliberate introductions in the mid-20th century, raccoons are now also distributed across the European mainland, the Caucasus region and Japan.

Though previously thought to be solitary, there is now evidence that raccoons engage in gender-specific social behavior.
Related females often share a common area, while unrelated males live
together in groups of up to four animals to maintain their positions
against foreign males during the mating season, and other potential
invaders. Home range sizes vary anywhere from 3 hectares (7 acres) for females in cities to 50 km2 (20 sq mi) for males in prairies. After a gestation period
of about 65 days, two to five young, known as “kits”, are born in
spring. The kits are subsequently raised by their mother until
dispersion in late fall. Although captive raccoons have been known to
live over 20 years, their average life expectancy in the wild is only
1.8 to 3.1 years. In many areas, hunting and vehicular injury are the two most common causes of death.

Contents

Etymology

The mask of a raccoon is often interrupted by a brown-black streak that extends from forehead to nose.[7]

The word “raccoon” was adopted into English from the native Powhatan term, as used in the Virginia Colony. It was recorded on Captain John Smith‘s list of Powhatan words as aroughcun, and on that of William Strachey as arathkone.[8] It has also been identified as a Proto-Algonquian root *ahrah-koon-em, meaning “[the] one who rubs, scrubs and scratches with its hands”.[citation needed]

Similarly, Spanish colonists adopted the Spanish word mapache from the Nahuatl mapachitli of the Aztecs, meaning “[the] one who takes everything in its hands”.[9] In many languages, the raccoon is named for its characteristic dousing behavior in conjunction with that language’s term for bear, for example Waschbär in German, orsetto lavatore in Italian, mosómedve in Hungarian and araiguma (アライグマ) in Japanese. In French and Portuguese (in Portugal), the washing behavior is combined with these languages’ term for rat, yielding, respectively, raton laveur and ratão-lavadeiro. Winston Salem Bat Removal.

The colloquial abbreviation coon is used in words like coonskin for fur clothing and in phrases like old coon as a self-designation of trappers.[10] However, the clipped form is also in use as an ethnic slur.[11] The raccoon’s scientific name, Procyon lotor, is neo-Latin, meaning “before-dog washer”, with lotor Latin for “washer” and Procyon Latinized Greek from προ-, “before” and κύων, “dog”.

Taxonomy

Track

In the first decades after its discovery by the members of the expedition of Christopher Columbus, who was the first person to leave a written record about the species, taxonomists thought the raccoon was related to many different species, including dogs, cats, badgers and particularly bears.[12] Carl Linnaeus, the father of modern taxonomy, placed the raccoon in the genus Ursus, first as Ursus cauda elongata (“long-tailed bear”) in the second edition of his Systema Naturae (1740), then as Ursus Lotor (“washer bear”) in the tenth edition (1758–59).[13] In 1780, Gottlieb Conrad Christian Storr placed the raccoon in its own genus Procyon, which can be translated as either “before the dog” or “doglike”.[14] It is also possible that Storr had its nocturnal lifestyle in mind and chose the star Procyon as eponym for the species.[15]

Evolution

Based on fossil evidence from France and Germany, the first known members of the family Procyonidae lived in Europe in the late Oligocene about 25 million years ago.[16] Similar tooth and skull structures suggest procyonids and weasels share a common ancestor, but molecular analysis indicates a closer relationship between raccoons and bears.[17] After the then-existing species crossed the Bering Strait at least six million years later, the center of its distribution was probably in Central America.[18] Coatis (Nasua and Nasuella) and raccoons (Procyon) have been considered to share common descent from a species in the genus Paranasua present between 5.2 and 6.0 million years ago.[19]
This assumption, based on morphological comparisons of fossils,
conflicts with a 2006 genetic analysis which indicates raccoons are more
closely related to ringtails.[20] Unlike other procyonids, such as the crab-eating raccoon (Procyon cancrivorus), the ancestors of the common raccoon left tropical and subtropical
areas and migrated farther north about 2.5 million years ago, in a
migration that has been confirmed by the discovery of fossils in the Great Plains dating back to the middle of the Pliocene.[21]

Subspecies

Four subspecies of raccoon found only on small Central American and Caribbean islands were often regarded as distinct species after their discovery. These are the Bahaman raccoon and Guadeloupe raccoon, which are very similar to each other; the Tres Marias raccoon, which is larger than average and has an angular skull; and the extinct Barbados raccoon. Studies of their morphological and genetic traits in 1999, 2003 and 2005 led all these island raccoons to be listed as subspecies of the common raccoon in the third edition of Mammal Species of the World (2005). A fifth island raccoon population, the Cozumel raccoon, which weighs only 3 to 4 kg (6.6 to 8.8 lb) and has notably small teeth, is still regarded as a separate species.[22][23][24][25]  Archdale Removal of bats

The four smallest raccoon subspecies, with an average weight of 1.8
to 2.7 kilograms (4.0 to 6.0 lb), are found along the southern coast of Florida and on the adjacent islands; an example is the Ten Thousand Island raccoon (Procyon lotor marinus).[26] Most of the other 15 subspecies differ only slightly from each other in coat color, size and other physical characteristics.[27] The two most widespread subspecies are the Eastern raccoon (Procyon lotor lotor) and the Upper Mississippi Valley raccoon (Procyon lotor hirtus).
Both share a comparatively dark coat with long hairs, but the Upper
Mississippi Valley raccoon is larger than the Eastern raccoon. The
Eastern raccoon occurs in all U.S. states and Canadian provinces to the
north of South Carolina and Tennessee. The adjacent range of the Upper Mississippi Valley raccoon covers all U.S. states and Canadian provinces to the north of North Carolina, Louisiana, Texas and New Mexico.[28]

Description

Skull with dentition: 2/2 molars, 4/4 premolars, 1/1 canines, 3/3 incisors

Physical characteristics

Skeleton

Head to hindquarters, raccoons measure between 40 and 70 cm (16 and
28 in), not including the bushy tail which can measure between 20 and 40
cm (8 and 16 in), but is usually not much longer than 25 cm (10 in).[29] The shoulder height is between 23 and 30 cm (9 and 12 in).[30] The body weight of an adult raccoon varies considerably with habitat,
making the raccoon one of the most variably sized mammals. It can range
from 2 to 14 kilograms (4 to 30 lb), but is usually between 3.5 and 9
kilograms (8 and 20 lb). The smallest specimens are found in Southern
Florida, while those near the northern limits of the raccoon’s range
tend to be the largest (see Bergmann’s rule).[31] Males are usually 15 to 20% heavier than females.[32] At the beginning of winter, a raccoon can weigh twice as much as in spring because of fat storage.[33]
The largest recorded wild raccoon weighed 28.4 kg (62.6 lb) and
measured 140 cm (55 in) in total length, by far the largest size
recorded for a procyonid.[34][35]Kernersville Bat Removal

The most characteristic physical feature of the raccoon is the area of black fur around the eyes, which contrasts sharply with the surrounding white face coloring. This is reminiscent of a “bandit’s mask” and has thus enhanced the animal’s reputation for mischief.[36]
The slightly rounded ears are also bordered by white fur. Raccoons are
assumed to recognize the facial expression and posture of other members
of their species more quickly because of the conspicuous facial
coloration and the alternating light and dark rings on the tail.[37][38] The dark mask may also reduce glare and thus enhance night vision.[38] On other parts of the body, the long and stiff guard hairs, which shed moisture, are usually colored in shades of gray and, to a lesser extent, brown.[39]
Raccoons with a very dark coat are more common in the German population
because individuals with such coloring were among those initially
released to the wild.[40] The dense underfur,
which accounts for almost 90% of the coat, insulates against cold
weather and is composed of 2 to 3 cm (0.8 to 1.2 in) long hairs.[39]Burlington Bat Removal

Baculum or “penis bone”

The raccoon, whose method of locomotion is usually considered to be plantigrade, can stand on its hind legs to examine objects with its front paws.[41]
As raccoons have short legs compared to their compact torso, they are
usually not able either to run quickly or jump great distances.[42] Their top speed over short distances is 16 to 24 km/h (10 to 15 mph).[43][44] Raccoons can swim with an average speed of about 5 km/h (3 mph) and can stay in the water for several hours.[45]
For climbing down a tree headfirst—an unusual ability for a mammal of
its size—a raccoon rotates its hind feet so they are pointing backwards.[46] Raccoons have a dual cooling system to regulate their temperature; that is, they are able to both sweat and pant for heat dissipation.[47]

Raccoon skulls have a short and wide facial region and a voluminous braincase. The facial length of the skull is less than the cranial, and their nasal bones are short and quite broad. The auditory bullae are inflated in form, and the sagittal crest is weakly developed.[48] The dentition — 40 teeth with the dental formula: 3.1.4.23.1.4.2 — is adapted to their omnivorous diet: the carnassials are not as sharp and pointed as those of a full-time carnivore, but the molars are not as wide as those of a herbivore.[49] The penis bone of males is about 10 cm (4 in) long and strongly bent at the front end.[50] Seven of the thirteen identified vocal calls are used in communication between the mother and her kits, one of these being the birdlike twittering of newborns.[51]

Bottom side of the front paw with visible vibrissae on the tips of the digits

Senses

The most important sense for the raccoon is its sense of touch.[52] The “hyper sensitive”[53] front paws are protected by a thin horny layer which becomes pliable when wet.[54] The five digits of the paws have no webbing between them, which is unusual for a carnivoran.[55] Almost two-thirds of the area responsible for sensory perception in the raccoon’s cerebral cortex is specialized for the interpretation of tactile impulses, more than in any other studied animal.[56] They are able to identify objects before touching them with vibrissae located above their sharp, nonretractable claws.[57] The raccoon’s paws lack an opposable thumb and thus it does not have the agility of the hands of primates.[58] There is no observed negative effect on tactile perception when a raccoon stands in water below 10 °C (50 °F) for hours.[59] Summerfield bat removal

Raccoons are thought to be color blind or at least poorly able to distinguish color, though their eyes are well-adapted for sensing green light.[60] Although their accommodation of 11 dioptre is comparable to that of humans and they see well in twilight because of the tapetum lucidum behind the retina, visual perception is of subordinate importance to raccoons because of their poor long-distance vision.[61] In addition to being useful for orientation in the dark, their sense of smell is important for intraspecific communication. Glandular secretions (usually from their anal glands), urine and feces are used for marking.[62] With their broad auditory range, they can perceive tones up to 50–85 kHz as well as quiet noises like those produced by earthworms underground.[63]

Intelligence

Only a few studies have been undertaken to determine the mental
abilities of raccoons, most of them based on the animal’s sense of
touch. In a study by the ethologist
H. B. Davis in 1908, raccoons were able to open 11 of 13 complex locks
in fewer than 10 tries and had no problems repeating the action when the
locks were rearranged or turned upside down. Davis concluded they
understood the abstract principles of the locking mechanisms and their learning speed was equivalent to that of rhesus macaques.[64] Studies in 1963, 1973, 1975 and 1992 concentrated on raccoon memory showed they can remember the solutions to tasks for up to three years.[65]
In a study by B. Pohl in 1992, raccoons were able to instantly
differentiate between identical and different symbols three years after
the short initial learning phase.[65] Stanislas Dehaene reports in his book The Number Sense raccoons can distinguish boxes containing two or four grapes from those containing three.[66]

Behavior

Social behavior

Raccoons in a tree: The raccoon’s social structure is grouped into what Ulf Hohmann calls a “three class society”.

Studies in the 1990s by the ethologists Stanley D. Gehrt and Ulf Hohmann indicated raccoons engage in gender-specific social behaviors and are not typically solitary, as was previously thought.[67][68] Related females often live in a so-called “fission-fusion society“, that is, they share a common area and occasionally meet at feeding or resting grounds.[69] Unrelated males often form loose male social groups to maintain their position against foreign males during the mating season—or against other potential invaders.[70] Such a group does not usually consist of more than four individuals.[71]
Since some males show aggressive behavior towards unrelated kits,
mothers will isolate themselves from other raccoons until their kits are
big enough to defend themselves.[72] With respect to these three different modes of life prevalent among raccoons, Hohmann called their social structure a “three class society”.[73] Samuel I. Zeveloff, professor of zoology at Weber State University and author of the book Raccoons: A Natural History,
is more cautious in his interpretation and concludes at least the
females are solitary most of the time and, according to Erik K.
Fritzell’s study in North Dakota in 1978, males in areas with low population densities are solitary as well.[74]

The shape and size of a raccoon’s home range varies depending on age, sex, and habitat, with adults claiming areas more than twice as large as juveniles.[75] While the size of home ranges in the inhospitable habitat of North Dakota’s prairies lay between 7 and 50 km2 (3 and 20 sq mi) for males and between 2 and 16 km2 (1 and 6 sq mi) for females, the average size in a marsh at Lake Erie was 0.5 km2 (0.19 sq mi).[76]
Irrespective of whether the home ranges of adjacent groups overlap,
they are most likely not actively defended outside the mating season if
food supplies are sufficient.[77] Odor marks on prominent spots are assumed to establish home ranges and identify individuals.[78]
Urine and feces left at shared latrines may provide additional
information about feeding grounds, since raccoons were observed to meet
there later for collective eating, sleeping and playing.[79]

Concerning the general behavior patterns of raccoons, Gehrt points
out that “typically you’ll find 10 to 15 percent that will do the
opposite”[80] of what is expected.

On an apple tree

Diet

Though usually nocturnal, the raccoon is sometimes active in daylight to take advantage of available food sources.[81] Its diet consists of about 40% invertebrates, 33% plant material and 27% vertebrates.[82]
Since its diet consists of such a variety of different foods, Zeveloff
argues the raccoon “may well be one of the world’s most omnivorous
animals”.[83]
While its diet in spring and early summer consists mostly of insects,
worms, and other animals already available early in the year, it prefers
fruits and nuts, such as acorns and walnuts, which emerge in late summer and autumn, and represent a rich calorie source for building up fat needed for winter.[84] Contrary to popular belief, raccoons eat active or large prey, such as birds and mammals, only occasionally, since they prefer prey that is easier to catch, specifically fish, amphibians and bird eggs.[85] When food is plentiful, raccoons can develop strong individual preferences for specific foods.[86] In the northern parts of their range, raccoons go into a winter rest, reducing their activity drastically as long as a permanent snow cover makes searching for food impossible.[87]

Dousing

Captive raccoons often douse their food before eating.

Raccoons sample food and other objects with their front paws to
examine them and to remove unwanted parts. The tactile sensitivity of
their paws is increased if this action is performed underwater, since
the water softens the hard layer covering the paws.[88]
However, the behavior observed in captive raccoons in which they carry
their food to a watering hole to “wash” or douse it before eating has
not been observed in the wild.[89] Naturalist Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (1707–1788) believed that raccoons do not have adequate saliva production to moisten food, necessitating dousing, but this is certainly incorrect.[90]
Captive raccoons douse their food more frequently when a watering hole
with a layout similar to a stream is not farther away than 3 m (10 ft).[91] The widely accepted theory is that dousing is a vacuum activity imitating foraging at shores for aquatic foods.[92]
This is supported by the observation that such foods are doused more
frequently. Cleaning dirty food does not seem to be a reason for
“washing”.[91] Experts have cast doubt on the veracity of observations of wild raccoons dousing food.[93]

Reproduction

Raccoons usually mate in a period triggered by increasing daylight between late January and mid-March.[94]
However, there are large regional differences which are not completely
explicable by solar conditions. For example, while raccoons in southern
states typically mate later than average, the mating season in Manitoba also peaks later than usual in March and extends until June.[95]
During the mating season, males restlessly roam their home ranges in
search of females in an attempt to court them during the three- to
four-day period when conception is possible. These encounters will often
occur at central meeting places.[96] Copulation, including foreplay, can last over an hour and is repeated over several nights.[97] The weaker members of a male social group also are assumed to get the opportunity to mate, since the stronger ones cannot mate with all available females.[98]
In a study in southern Texas during the mating seasons from 1990 to
1992, about one third of all females mated with more than one male.[99] If a female does not become pregnant or if she loses her kits early, she will sometimes become fertile again 80 to 140 days later.[100]

A kit

After usually 63 to 65 days of gestation (although anywhere from 54 to 70 days is possible), a litter of typically two to five young is born.[101] The average litter size varies widely with habitat, ranging from 2.5 in Alabama to 4.8 in North Dakota.[102] Larger litters are more common in areas with a high mortality rate, due, for example, to hunting or severe winters.[103]
While male yearlings usually reach their sexual maturity only after the
main mating season, female yearlings can compensate for high mortality
rates and may be responsible for about 50% of all young born in a year.[104] Males have no part in raising young.[105] The kits (also called “cubs”) are blind and deaf at birth, but their mask is already visible against their light fur.[106] The birth weight of the about 10 cm (4 in)-long kits is between 60 and 75 g (2.1 and 2.6 oz).[107] Their ear canals open after around 18 to 23 days, a few days before their eyes open for the first time.[108]
Once the kits weigh about 1 kg (2 lb), they begin to explore outside
the den, consuming solid food for the first time after six to
nine weeks.[109] After this point, their mother suckles them with decreasing frequency; they are usually weaned by 16 weeks.[110] In the fall, after their mother has shown them dens and feeding grounds, the juvenile group splits up.[111] While many females will stay close to the home range of their mother, males can sometimes move more than 20 km (12 mi) away.[112] This is considered an instinctive behavior, preventing inbreeding.[113] However, mother and offspring may share a den during the first winter in cold areas.[114]

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